insurrection at home; by the bringing in of munitions thereafter from the United States; by President Bustamante himself taking the field against the Federalists on March 18, leaving the government in the hands of Provisional President Santa Anna; by a division within the ranks of the Federalists; and by the failure of the Federalists to win the support of the populace, who too often regarded them as little better, if as good, as the Centralists. The Centralists usually, under these particular circumstances, respected private property and paid for what was requisitioned. It has been said that Zapata, being forced to evacuate Soto la Marina, demanded money and goods from the citizens, and drove off horses and mules from the summer pastures, leaving cattle dead in the fields and committing many iniquities and depredations -- all in the name of liberty. The church of Mineral de San Nicolás was robbed of its silver and sacred vessels, and "citizens of both sex had been spoiled by rough usage." The Centralist press accused Zapata and his 260 "villianous fellows," who called themselves Federalists, of committing in the towns of northern Nuevo León innumerable vexations, robberies, violences, assaults, oppressions, waste, ruin, and desolation upon honest, innocent, and peaceful citizens. Zapata's actions were described as "marked by much barbarity." Tales of such depredations, too often true, hurt the Federalist cause. However, on August 11 Zapata was surprised by Colonel Domingo Buiza and decisively defeated. Those of his followers who survived fled in great disorder. Zapata, himself, fled precipitantly in his shirtsleeves.
As the reader may recall, Urrea suffered defeat in October 1838 in Sonora and was reported to have fled on foot with twelve associates through Durango headed toward Tampico, which he reached on November 8 and was there given command of the "Second Liberating Section" of the Federalist army. From San Juan de Úlloa, where he had gone with Mejía to confer with Admiral Baudin, Urrea addressed
people of Galveston for their courtesies. The broadside invitation and the admiral's reply were published in the Galvestonian, May 16, 1839.
76. R. G. Dunlap to M. B. Lamar, New York, July 21, 1839, in Garrison (ed.), Diplomatic Correspondence of Texas, 1907, I, 410-414.
77. La Concordia, May 25, 1839.
78. Villa Aldama, Bustamante, Salinas, Victoria, Abasolo, San Nicolás, Hidalgo, San Francisco de Cafias, and Villa de Marín.
79. Gaceta de Tampico, Aug. 31, 1839; La Concordia, Aug. 31, 1839.
80. Telegraph and Texas Register, Aug. 7, 1839.