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Formation of Republic of the Río Grande

The three pieces of artillery, an eight-pounder and two four-pounders, all the parque, equippage, flags, and other property of the rebels was captured. Canales and a few of his followers sought safety in flight.[39]  They were pursued for three leagues. During the pursuit Canales was overtaken by a small body of Centralist cavalry, whose officer asked him to surrender. Turning in his saddle, Canales demanded: "'To whom?'" "The officer," we are told, "recognized in Canales the features of one to whom he was but recently a prisoner, and to whose magnanimity he was indebted for his life and liberty. Turning back to his men, he observed, 'Let him go, he is nothing but a Ranchero,' which (he being disguised as such) was readily believed, and Canales made good his escape."[40]

By the first reports, 157 Federalist dead were counted, including some American adventurers from Texas and 20 Carrizo (Carece) Indians, and it was believed that the number would eventually reach 200;[41]  21 were reported to be gravely wounded. The Carrizo Indians in the Federalist organization were almost entirely wiped out as they fought bitterly to the last,[42]  while Canales and many of his Mexican friends sought safety in flight. Out of some 320 Federalists involved in the engagements during the two days of March 24 and 25, 176,

39. Mariano Arista á Gobernador del Departamento de Nuevo-León, Cuartel-general en la Villa de Morelos, Marzo 26 de 1840, in El Ancla, April 3, 1840 (Supplement to No. 14); Mariano Arista al Ministro de la Guerra, Cuartel-general en Sta. Rita de Morelos, Marzo 26 de 1840 ("Battle Account"), in ibid., April 24, 1840; an English translation of Arista's report will be found in the Telegraph and Texas Register, April 29, 1840; Antonio Canales to President of the Provisional Government of the Northern Frontier of the Republic of Mexico, March 26, 1840, in Austin City Gazette, May 6, 1840.

40. "Facts of the Overthrow of Canales derived from Captain Allen of the Federal Army," from the Richmond Telescope, April 18, 1840, in Telegraph and Texas Register, April 29, 1840; R. B. T. to the Editor of the Colorado Gazette, Victoria, April 8, 1840, in Colorado Gazette and Advertiser, April 18, 1840.

41. Arista, "Itinerario . . . ," in El Ancla, March 29, 1841. Under date of March 25, 1840 (which apparently included the entry for the 26th), Arista listed 215 Federalists killed and 181 taken prisoner.

42. Telegraph and Texas Register, July 13, 1842, says, "Several of these [Carrizo or Cerece] Indians accompanied Jourdan's men in the 'Canales war.' They were, however, so cowardly that they could not be induced to engage in a fight, and were only serviceable as spies and for stealing horses." Manuel Reducindo Barragan to D. Mariano Arista, Morelos, March 25, 1840, in El Ancla, April 24, 1840, reported more than 20 Carrizo Indians killed.

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AFTER SAN JACINTO: The Texas-Mexican Frontier, 1836-1841
Joseph Milton Nance, 1963