previous Texan attacks upon Laredo, to disrupt the economic development of the western frontier of Texas, and to strengthen the argument of the anti-annexationists in the United States that to annex Texas would be tantamount to annexing a war with a foreign power, Mexico in 1842 resumed the offensive by launching three invasions of Texas. In the fall of 1841, General Arista, the Centralist leader in the North, issued a manifesto, calling upon the Federalists and Centralists to forget their differences in the interest of greater harmony at home, and to give their attention to the real enemy. "In Texas," he declared, "there is a field open to gather fresh and glorious laurels that . . . false aspirations . . . calumny and envy cannot wither. In Texas you can find a field in which to display your warlike ardor without the pain and mortification of knowing that the blood you shed and the tears you occasion are from your brethren." From Monterey, Arista issued an address on January 9, 1842, to the inhabitants of the "Department of Texas," carefully pointing out the hopelessness of their struggle for independence and promising amnesty and protection to all who refrained from taking up arms during his contemplated invasion. At the same time he warned them that while his country held out "the olive branch and concord" with one hand, she would direct with the other "the sword of justice against the obstinate." Thereupon, Mexico began to strengthen her northern garrisons and to make preparations for invading Texas, but thoughtful persons in Texas believed Mexico
72. Telegraph and Texas Register, Oct. 17, 1841.
73. Mariano Arista, general de division y en gefe del cuerpo de ejército de Norte de la republica mexicana, á los que habitan el departamento de Tejas, Cuartel general en Monterey, Enero 9 de 1842, in El Cosmopolita, March 30, 1842 (English translation in Telegraph and Texas Register, March 9, 1842); Eugene C. Barker (ed.), Texas History for High Schools and Colleges, p. 363.
74. José A. Quintero, José A. Quintero en Cuidad Victoria; un decreto del presidente sobre una contribución establecida durante la guerra con Téjas, Abril 7 de 1841, in Matamoros Archives, XXXVIII, 192-195. On January 17, 1842, Santa Anna ordered the establishment of companies of auxiliares and rurales for the protection of the inhabitants from robbers and marauding bands. The governors of the Departments and the public officials of the towns were directed to establish companies of caballeria to be known as auxiliares, subject to the orders and inspection of the governor of the respective departments. On the principal haciendas armed guards, known as rurales, were to be organized under the leadership of the proprietors of the haciendas. The governors were to supply both groups with arms and munitions, and they were to designate at three months intervals the size of the force and arms to be maintained by the towns and